Rural System's

Modern Wild Faunal Resource System Management
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Types of Wildlife Resource Management Objectives (Goals)

See also a similar unit for review and expansion.

There are 7 types of objectives. They have similarities to subsystem components. They are not hierarchical, not "levels." The list:

  1. General
  2. Fundamental
  3. Success Criterion
  4. Constraints
  5. Primary
  6. Actions
  7. Futuristic

General: vague; bylaws; political; include and exclude

Fundamental Objectives are:

  1. Preservation - To stabilize or increase a population at or above a minimum recovery density but less than carrying capacity using whatever means possible.

  2. Species per se - To maintain a population of a particular species.

  3. Wilderness - To maintain fauna in a wilderness environment in variety and normal abundance compatible with other wilderness uses and adjoining land uses.

  4. Ecologic - To change population richness and abundance to achieve desirable stages and conditions of community succession.

  5. Esthetic - To produce numbers, species, and characteristics of fauna in the proper setting for esthetic benefits to the maximum number of appreciative people.

  6. Trophy - To produce quantities of quality faunal trophies.

  7. Sporting Recreation - To produce the maximum amount and variety of recreation for people through all faunal use activities, observations, and experiences.

  8. Multiple Use - To produce maximum faunal values within the restrictions or limits imposed by production-optimizing efforts with other resources on the same management area.

  9. Economic - To maintain fauna as an attraction and viewing opportunity will strengthen the economy of the community or government.

  10. Quasi-exploitation - To take for purposes of profit the maximum number of animals without destroying the major base resource.

  11. Production - To produce a sustained maximum yield of meat, hides, furs, and other products from fauna.

  12. Entrepreneur - To produce maximum personal or corporate income through continuing faunal management.

  13. Control - To reduce to a reasonable level animal effects detrimental to people's interest.

  14. Exploitation - To use fauna to the fullest when values seem to be the highest.

Success Criterion: The means for deciding whether objectives are being achieved; the objective function: Examples: B/C, present net value, minimize risk, maximize profit, or stabilize an index of performance.

Constraints: Policy like; equivalent to "Do x subject to y"; "subject to y" is a constraint; examples "to underspend the allotted money", "to operate safely", "to avoid offending person P"

Primary: Working rules of the manager; specific; measurable; the i's of the Benefit equation; functional; examples "To maximize the number of trophy animals taken having a score greater then x"; "To maximize a law enforcement compliance index in the region"; "To minimize maximum annual stream turbidity."

Actions: Confused with primary; means to other objectives; example "To build 100 wood duck boxes" is a type of objective, the success of which might help achieve a primary objective of "To maximize the number of people in a region that see a male wood duck annually."

Futuristic: Related to feedforward; specific to encourage and require improved study of the future and to bring such study results into daily decision; example "To maximize use of time series analyses of big game harvests"; "To maximize the number of years in the horizon used in planning."

Objectives are needed because they:

  1. Help communicate
  2. Improve coordination and cooperation
  3. Improve group interaction and efficiency
  4. Allow optimization of a system
  5. Explain actions by certain people or subgroups
  6. Justify requests for resources and, later, how they are utilized
  7. Point up research needs
  8. Provide the basis for feedback
  9. Are the basis for rational management, and
  10. Are fundamental requirements for logical problem analyses and solutions

Table 1. A guide for evaluations the wording and structure of objectives
  1. It is important, worthy of specific consideration, and non-trivial.
  2. It is not a step to a higher objective.
  3. It goes beyond preventing deleterious effects.
  4. There is believed to be one or more ways of achieving it at some level.
  5. It attains at a level beyond presently known capabilities of use or benefit.
  6. It has no hidden objective.
  7. It tends to be long-term.
  8. Agreement on acceptable units of measure of attainment (at least tentative indexes) can be reached.
  9. Progress toward it can be measured.
  10. It expresses as a production function what to obtain or to retain.
  11. It is flexible, allowing for adjustment to new directions or conditions.
  12. It contains no methodology.
  13. It cannot be combined with another objective on the basis of the participant.
  14. It has been written for the proper audience.
  15. It can be understood to at least three people's mutual satisfaction.
  16. It is grammatically correct.
  17. It is brief.

More Notes on Objectives

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Last revision January 17, 2004.