Modern Wild Faunal Resource System Management
Types of Wildlife Resource Management Objectives (Goals)
See also a similar unit for review and expansion.
There are 7 types of objectives. They have similarities to subsystem components. They are not hierarchical, not "levels." The list:
- Success Criterion
General: vague; bylaws; political; include and exclude
Fundamental Objectives are:
- Preservation - To stabilize or increase a population at or above a minimum recovery density but less than carrying capacity using whatever means possible.
- Species per se - To maintain a population of a particular species.
- Wilderness - To maintain fauna in a wilderness environment in variety and normal abundance compatible with other wilderness uses and adjoining land uses.
- Ecologic - To change population richness and abundance to achieve desirable stages and conditions of community succession.
- Esthetic - To produce numbers, species, and characteristics of fauna in the proper setting for esthetic benefits to the maximum number of appreciative people.
- Trophy - To produce quantities of quality faunal trophies.
- Sporting Recreation - To produce the maximum amount and variety of recreation for people through all faunal use activities, observations, and experiences.
- Multiple Use - To produce maximum faunal values within the restrictions or limits imposed by production-optimizing efforts with other resources on the same management area.
- Economic - To maintain fauna as an attraction and viewing opportunity will strengthen the economy of the community or government.
- Quasi-exploitation - To take for purposes of profit the maximum number of animals without destroying the major base resource.
- Production - To produce a sustained maximum yield of meat, hides, furs, and other products from fauna.
- Entrepreneur - To produce maximum personal or corporate income through continuing faunal management.
- Control - To reduce to a reasonable level animal effects detrimental to people's interest.
- Exploitation - To use fauna to the fullest when values seem to be the highest.
Success Criterion: The means for deciding whether objectives are being achieved; the objective function: Examples: B/C, present net value, minimize risk, maximize profit, or stabilize an index of performance.
Constraints: Policy like; equivalent to "Do x subject to y"; "subject to y" is a constraint; examples "to underspend the allotted money", "to operate safely", "to avoid offending person P"
Primary: Working rules of the manager; specific; measurable; the i's of the Benefit equation; functional; examples "To maximize the number of trophy animals taken having a score greater then x"; "To maximize a law enforcement compliance index in the region"; "To minimize maximum annual stream turbidity."
Actions: Confused with primary; means to other objectives; example "To build 100 wood duck boxes" is a type of objective, the success of which might help achieve a primary objective of "To maximize the number of people in a region that see a male wood duck annually."
Futuristic: Related to feedforward; specific to encourage and require improved study of the future and to bring such study results into daily decision; example "To maximize use of time series analyses of big game harvests"; "To maximize the number of years in the horizon used in planning."
Objectives are needed because they:
- Help communicate
- Improve coordination and cooperation
- Improve group interaction and efficiency
- Allow optimization of a system
- Explain actions by certain people or subgroups
- Justify requests for resources and, later, how they are utilized
- Point up research needs
- Provide the basis for feedback
- Are the basis for rational management, and
- Are fundamental requirements for logical problem analyses and solutions
Table 1. A guide for evaluations the wording and structure of objectives
- It is important, worthy of specific consideration, and non-trivial.
- It is not a step to a higher objective.
- It goes beyond preventing deleterious effects.
- There is believed to be one or more ways of achieving it at some level.
- It attains at a level beyond presently known capabilities of use or benefit.
- It has no hidden objective.
- It tends to be long-term.
- Agreement on acceptable units of measure of attainment (at least tentative indexes) can be reached.
- Progress toward it can be measured.
- It expresses as a production function what to obtain or to retain.
- It is flexible, allowing for adjustment to new directions or conditions.
- It contains no methodology.
- It cannot be combined with another objective on the basis of the participant.
- It has been written for the proper audience.
- It can be understood to at least three people's mutual satisfaction.
- It is grammatically correct.
- It is brief.
More Notes on Objectives
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Last revision January 17, 2004.